Sunday, March 15, 2020
Modernization and Dependency essays Dependency is a process associated with the economies of many Third World countries that is formatted in terms of external factors. Dependency exists when a country relies on a single (or a limited few) exports that are sold to more industrialized countries, manufactured and then resold to the country of origin for a higher price. This means that a country's income from exports is continually insufficient to meet the cost of The nature of dependency theory categorizes countries into one of two types: dominant and dependent. Many formally colonized countries (such as India) were organized along this type of economic structure. The primary state was automatically the imperialist overseer and the dependent state was the colony. Single export economies were also common within the colonial network (consider coffee from Brazil or sugar from the Caribbean). Dependent states tend toward a low per capita GNP as direct result of their dependency. "The dependent states supply cheap minerals, agricultural commodities, and cheap labor, and also serve as the repositories of surplus capital, obsolescent technologies, and manufactured goods. These functions orient the economies of the dependent states toward the outside: money, goods, and services do flow into dependent states, but the allocation of these resources are determined by the economic interests of the dominant states, and not by the economic interests of the dependent Economic dependency is a result of direct intervention and manipulation of the economic structure in poorer countries. Industrialization is limited as a result of outside control and domination. These are countries that are exploited for the purpose of providing specific export products and, or, cheap labor to the detriment of the native population and the benefit of the dominant state. Politically, ...
Friday, February 28, 2020
Employee Context at K wik-fit - Essay Example Case study reveals that work force is distinctly tiered into hierarchies of grass root workers, supervisors and managers. The main employee and HRM context at K wik-fit is that of employee turnover. This context can best be classified as a problematic context as the employee turnover has been very rapid at K wik-fit.Figues reported in the case study indicate that in the K wik-fit's Lanarkshire call center the employee turnover used to be as high as 52 percent. In the year 2001 such high employee turnovers used to translate into vacancy rate as high as 21 percent. This used to present three fold HRM problems. There was a colossal waste of organizational resources invested in training and upgrading employees who only decided to quit soon after receiving such training. Two, an equivalent effort and resource deployment was required to fill the resulting vacancies and three resources had to necessarily deployed yet again to train and upgrade the new recruits. This results in adverse impac t on employee productivity and continuation of the organizational work and, in the final analysis, impacts overall company results and profits. The main features of K wik-fit's human resource strategy center on two core concepts found in any human resource management strategic move. These are: one, analyzing in the work environment the possible factors responsible for employees' rapid turnover and removing such factors as far as possible, and, two promoting intra organizational conditions and tie ups which would help motivate the workers to high productivity and enthusiasm. The results of this two fold human resources management programme ,adopted in K wik-fit in stages, has been astounding enough to give it an industry award for human resources management. Factually the stage one of the human resources management initiate has brought down the employee turnover rates from the high of 52 percent to 34 percent with another 2 percent fall being achieved in a matter of couple of months. The initiative has been so successful that t even helped halt employee turnover in the month of January where turnover used of be highest. Even in this month the employee turnover instead of rising over the annual average continued to plummet indicating deep impact of the human resources management initiative. A closer look at these initiative clearly reveals that two sets of human resources tactical moves can be identified separately i.e. one that improves work environment for employee and helps boost their motivation and two that offer to help employees solve work related issues and problems and move to higher productivity and better work standards. In the fact the latter move appears to be an initiation of a system of Total Quality Control (TQM) in the services organization. Behind both tactical moves there is a realization that selling insurance is a complex assignment which is not only monotonous and repetitive but which also requires up to date product knowledge and employee empowerment to meet the challenges posed by growing competition. To top it all such tactical moves have been carefully based upon employee feed back carefully collected earlier on. In the former category one finds that employee motivation is sought to
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Ancient Flood Stories (Problems for Critical Scholarship) - Essay Example However, it is not an easy task to find out the important details of these flood stories because of their extreme antiquity and the lack of supporting evidence except for a few broken shards or fragments of pottery that detail these flood stories. It is unswervingly a very daunting task indeed to verify the stories that will anchor them on historical details as many of these stories are seemingly myths or legends. This brief paper examines some of the challenges encountered in critical scholarship of stories like great floods which occurred a long time ago and for which records are incomplete. Discussion The aim of critical scholarship is to set historical records straight but problems are inevitable when the records are themselves incomplete or at times even contradictory. Many scholars, academicians, historians and archaeologists realize these limitations but still try to carry on with the task. In this regard, to claim certainty in the absence of corroborating pieces of evidence i s not only risky but also considered as reckless in terms of academic scholarship. To refer to something without a degree of certainty is likewise faulty, even deceptive. Several issues with regards to critical scholarship concerning these ancient flood stories pertain to the provenance of these stories, their lack of correspondence and the contradictions, the use of varying terms or emergence of several versions by different authors that hinders the task. The two most famous and well-read flood stories are that of the Biblical Noah's Ark and the Epic of Gilgamesh. The latter predates the former by a good thousand years or more, going back to at least the period of an actual king named Gilgamesh who had ruled a kingdom of Uruk in ancient Sumeria at around 2700 B.C.E. (before current era) but was written down on clay tablets only at around 2000 B.C.E. which were discovered only fairly recently in the libraries of King Ashurbanipal, who ruled around 700 B.C.E. by a young British museu m curator named George Smith back in 1872 and translated even much later (Mitchell 4). It is a story considered as the oldest-ever written story but what is even more remarkable is that it is very similar to Noah's Ark, especially the story about an immortal named Utnapishtim and a massive flood in his time. There are also many other similar stories about a great deluge in other cultures, namely that of the massive waters released by the Greek god Zeus, the Chinese version of a deluge in the great central river valley of the mighty Yangtze and the Indian story of Manu mentioned in ancient Sanskrit religious texts dating back to around 600 B.C.E. These stories have a familiar theme, the futility of fighting against the force of Nature or the powers of God although the themes may vary a bit, depending on context (History-world.org 1). Provenance Ã¢â¬â as stated earlier, the exact or precise origins of these flood stories defy even scholars and historians because of the passage of e xtremely long periods of time, dating back to antiquity itself. Based only on fragmentary records, with many pieces of evidence lacking, the best that can be done is make a conjecture or an approximation of their origins. It believed that the Epic of Gilgamesh is actually a literary masterpiece constructed by several authors and not just one writer, the story embellished with each successive re-telling. In many instances, the similarities between the Noahic story and Gilgamesh made historians surmise it was actually copied and translated into Hebrew by Moses circa 1450 B.C.E. and the Israelites brought
Friday, January 31, 2020
Economic Impact of the national adoption of Electric and hybrid cars Essay The Unites States consumes 25 % of the oil produced in the world and roughly 70% of this is consumed by the demand for transportation. The demand for crude oil in US is primarily driven by the demand for transport fuels with the price elasticity ranging between -0. 12 and -0. 3, as calculated for short-run and long-run elasticity respectively for 2008. Faced with higher fuel prices and the associated environmental hazards, the consumers and the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s focus is shifting towards development and adoption of technology for hybrid cars. The use of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) would reduce the green house gas (GHG) emissions and improve the economics of electrical industry by reducing the US dependency on foreign oil (Scot, Kintner-Meyer, Elliott, Warwick, 2007). The hybrid electric cars are cost effective compared to the conventional vehicles when run on gasoline and are absolutely emission-free in electric-only mode, when their batteries are recharged just by regenerative braking (afdc. energy. gov. ). The potential customer base which is identified as Ã¢â¬Ëearly majority groupÃ¢â¬â¢, are motivated to buy electric cars by a desire to reduce oil imports and help protect the environment (LaMonica, 2010). A comprehensive environmental assessment of the key air quality parameters, conducted by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, 2007), considering the adoption of hybrid electric vehicles outlines the following societal benefits of electrifying transportation include the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reduction in petroleum consumption, leading to reduced dependence on imported oil Ã¢â¬ ¢ Net reduction in GHG emissions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Potential to improve air quality Investing in electric vehicles has been a central tenet of the US. The government plans to invest $2. 4 billion to spur the production of 50,000 batteries a year for plug-in hybrids by 2011. This initiative will not only reduce the US oil imports, it will also reduce the pollution while boosting the economy by generating thousands of jobs for the Americans (AP, 2010). The adoption of Hybrid Electric Vehicles by a larger customer base will be a boon for the environment as well as the economy of the nation. With higher demand for the hybrid vehicles in future, it is expected that the cost of production of such vehicles will also come down due to economies of scale. This would further make the hybrid vehicles popular and thus expand the benefits. .? References AP. (2010, July 15). Obama to Promote Electric Vehicles in Michigan. Cnbc. com. Retrieved from http://www. cnbc. com/id/38259732 Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles. (July 2007). Electric Power Research Institute. Retrieved from http://mydocs. epri. com/docs/public/000000000001015325. pdf Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Alternative and Advanced Vehicles. US Department of Energy. Retrieved from http://www. afdc. energy. gov/afdc/vehicles/hybrid_electric_benefits. html Scott, M. J. ,Kintner-Meyer, M. , Elliott, D. B. , Warwick, W. M. (November, 2007). Impacts Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid vehicles on electric utilities and regional U. S power grids: Part2: Economic Assessment. Retrieved from http://energytech. pnl. gov/publications/pdf/PHEV_Economic_Analysis_Part2_Final. pdf
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Soccer Scholarship Essay 2 Ã My full name is Elizabeth Mason Godwin but I go by Libby. I have grown up living with my parents Barry and Nancy Godwin in Traverse City. I went to Willow Hill Elementary School where my love for sports started. I started playing soccer in fifth grade when my friend Carrie invited me to one of her practices to see what it was like. They let me play with the team that day and I fell in love! I immediately signed up and joined the YMCA team. I continued to play for the YMCA until I was in the seventh grade and moved up to TBAYS. I joined a rec team with a couple of my friends who also played soccer. We practiced twice a week in the spring and fall and had games every weekend. We also attended tournaments in the summer. My favorite was always the Canton Invitational down in Canton, Michigan. Besides loving to play the games that we had all weekend, I loved hanging out and meeting all of the other kids that had my same interest....SOCCER! i was on another TBAYS rec team with some friends in eighth grade but then in ninth grade it was time to try out for the big shebang...the high school team. I was fortunate to make the Varsity team at Traverse City West Senior High as a freshman. Since my freshman year I have played on the team every spring and now am currently a co- captain in my senior year. Through the high school team I have learned so much about soccer, the meaning of team, and friendship. Besides loving to play soccer I also enjoy hobbies such as tennis, snowboarding, sailing, photography and reading. I really enjoy outdoor activities. In ninth and tenth grade I went on a trip with my youth group to Pennsylvania where we went white water rafting both years. I found that experience incredible and can't wait to go again someday soon. Ã My future plans are to graduate this year from West Senior High and to spend another summer at our cottage on Torch Lake where I am planning on being a nanny for some friends of our family. My best friend Carrie (the one who initially got me into soccer) and I also are currently planning a road trip for the end of summer before we both go off to school.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Explain How the Solow Growth Model Would Analyse the Effects of a Fall in the Household Saving Ratio
In this essay, I will focus on two important aspects. The first is to give a brief historical outline of the Solow growth model. The second thread runs express how the outline on the Solow growth model might explain the effect of a fall in the household savings ratio. My essay will be guided by the diagram provided on which I have to make specific references and to think through as well as explain the various steps of the Solow growth model and what this would mean for economic growth. Without dismissing earlier attempts, the foundations upon which modern economic growth theory rests on the foundations put by US economist Robert Solow (1924-) in the 1950s and 1960s. The Solow growth model is very neoclassic in that it focuses primarily on the supply side. The Solow model seems to implicitly assume that, as long as the supply of goods increases, economic growth can be attained. In this way it is apparently different from Keynesian models of which focus is on the demand side of the economy such as inflation and unemployment. One of the major central reason by Solow to come up with the Solow model came from the desire to know what happens in the long run to an economy in which capital accumulation is taking place. In pursuit of an answer to this question Solow came up with a degree of mathematical and analytical work. Solow pursued a model of an economy in which one has a single good that can be consumed or invested, and he says the total output in the economy Y to the total labour supply L and the stock of physical capital K. When Solow talked of physical capital he meant things like machinery, buildings, equipment, things used by labour to make products. The aggregate measurement of output is symbolised by (Y), labour (L) and capital (K). This means that Y,L and K are variables describing the whole economy. The Solow growth model tells us that in the long term, the development of a closed economy will remain at a steady state, where there is no more growth. In figure 2, the economy has settled down in point E. Here, the fraction of an average worker output that is being saved, equals the average required investment to account for the depreciation and decay. This being achieved with k1 amount of capital per worker, the economy produces an output of y1 per worker, the economy produces an output of y1 per worker. A sudden fall in the household saving ratio to s*< s leads to negative net investments F minus E: workers only save a fraction s* of still the same y1, and therefore there is not enough being saved in the economy to be able to finance the decay of the capital stock at k1. As the level k1 cannot be retained by the average worker which is (negative net investments), the output per worker y has to start to decrease. In a dynamic process, the economy will move along the curve y=f(k), that means the amount of output per worker y will decrease, until it settles at a new steady state, where the net invstements equal zero. This being achieved at point E*, the resulting capital intensity is k*, with which an output of y* can be produced with y* being smaller than y1. In other words, a fall in the household ratio leads to a decrease of the amount of capital stock, a closed economy is able to to retain in the long term. The decay in the existing capital stock cannot anymore be completely replaced by investments, as there is not enough money being saved in the economy due to the fall in the household saving ratio. These resulting negative net investments will force the economy to decrease its output to the level y*. Only here, the amount being saved in the economy can again replace the complete decaying capital stock, which means the economy settles at a new long term equilibrium, a new steady state. The fall in the household saving ratio has therefore reduced the productivity of the average worker in the economy. PART B How far do models of corporation and bargaining alter our understanding of the potential for corporation between states. In this essay, I will focus myself on two models of cooperation and bargaining. The first model is called realism and its thrust is to say that the international political systems as a whole is anarchic in so far as there is no world government but what exists are multiple competing sovereigns. In terms of cooperation and bargaining between states realism poses real challenges to interdependence and specialisation. The second model is called liberalism and like realism it begins by acknowledging that the system is of course anarchic but it goes a bit further to argue that the interests that states seek to pursue in conditions of anarchy are shaped very much by the nature of the society, domestic, and transnational over which they seek to rule and particularly liberals stress the role of dominant powerful groups within society in shaping the nature of the national interests and this is clearly illustrated in a story about the development of India`s national interest in chapter 6. The fundamental difference between the two models is that liberalism says it is not just anarchy plus the distribution of power, it`s anarchy, and the distribution of power plus interdependence. The prospects for cooperation between states under conditions of both anarchy and interdependence bring to fore three aspects of the game. The first, the game is positive-sum when states are concerned purely with their absolute gains but the chance for bargaining and cooperation to mutual advantage are real and if the positive-sum is changed negatively it results in zero-sum games in which neither will be prepared to move from the original position hence blocking cooperation. The third is when states care about both their absolute gains and their relative positions giving us an indeterminate outcome and it very much depends on how the nations weigh the one against the other. In answering the question topic therefore, I am diving into a web of complexity. The realists`philosophical thrust claims that in an anarchic system, what then differentiates states are rather their capabilities as compared to their functions. In short it is the power of states, not their common purposes (survival), that differentiates one international political system from another (Bromley, 2004 p113) In the Realist mode therefore, the state will seek to avoid as necessary as possible forms of interdependence that create vulnerability in relation to issues of security, so they will avoid all forms of subordination with relation to other states in terms of power, since the superior power of some may also threaten the security of the weak. An example in our world today could be United States with the killing of Osama Bin Laden, where the US Navy SEALS are accused of transgression and trespassing into Pakistan without sovereign rights. In just some few words one could say that the international political systems between and among states according to realists comprise an anarchy of similar, competing political authorities in which each strives to maintain or improve its relative power base. Mexico epitomises this concept in the 1910 revolution and the subsequent creation of the PRI in 1929 which fostered a strong nationalistic ideology geared toward maintaining the independence of the country from foreign economic and political influences. Having outlined in short the essence of realist philosophy, there is need therefore, to ask what implications does this realist thinking have on cooperation and bargaining between states? The realist thinking has very essential implications in the fact that cooperation between states have to be severely limited even with big organisations like WTO because what should be avoided at all costs are dependencies. Even if there are benefits that accrue from cooperation with another state, you simply cannot depend on another country since this can create vulnerabilities lets say in cases of diplomatic fallout or cases of war. Another recent example is the treacherous diplomatic fallout between United Kingdom and Malawi with consequences on bilateral relations and especially the impact it will have on a largely dependent country Malawi. That limits considerably the scope for cooperation. According to Huysmans the other element that restrict cooperation between states, or even regional blocks in this case, sometimes like the European Union, Ã¢â¬Å"they are not calculating primarily their benefits from cooperation in terms of what they would gain in comparison to their major competitors, because what matters is not how much richer I become as a state, what matters is how much richer I become as a state compared to you, because then I`m more powerful, can translate to military power, economic power and so onÃ¢â¬ (Huysmans, Audio CD, 2010) In short state actors have to guarantee their own self-preservation, that is to say individuals in a state of nature or states in an anarchic international system will not willingly cooperate if the result is an increase in vulnerabilities and/ or decrease in relative power. Paul Hirst, a sociologist and political theorist served a blow to to realists`arguments by going against the view that sovereign control of territory is forged purely internally by arguing that states need to interact in the anarchic realm of international politics with other states. The achievement of sovereignty therefore, is at least partly the product of agreements between states in the form of recognition of each others`sovereign rights (Bromley 2004, p120) In this case therefore one dependents on the other. This then is the best chance to bring into play liberalism which argues that what we need to look at is the way in which the different national interests of states, that are shaped by the societies over which they rule, are configured together when put together at an international system. What we have are states all interacting with one another, all chasing national interests, as defined by their dominant groups, and those interests configure in different ways sometimes states interests are conflictual, sometimes cooperative and at some points mutually beneficial. Trade liberalisation is an example where arguably, the interests of states that are mutually engaging in trade liberalisation are not in conflict. They can both benefit from trade. States may come to view their position in relation to the others in a much more absolute terms and as a consequence of that, with full understanding of the fact that the structure of international system is interdependent as well as anarchic, enduring cooperation is at least a possibility. The states according to Bromley face an environment of what is called Ã¢â¬Å"strategic inter-dependenceÃ¢â¬ to mean the strategies that one can champion are conditioned by their anticipation of the strategies that others will pursue (Bromley CD 2010). Unlike, the realists, the assumption is that when states`interests interact internationally, it is not always the case that states will focus on their position or be worried about dependence, and the argument pursued is that security is only one value among others, that security will be balanced alongside other considerations like economic welfare, promotion of cultural values, or whatever. In this regard Mexico is a perfect example, in so far as Mexico joined NAFTA, not worrying so much about its position vis-a-vis its dominant neighbour, the United States but increasingly focusing on the absolute gains that Mexico might make through those policies. Chapter 9, says states sometimes interact in positive-sum ways, meaning when they interact they both gain from cooperation and bargaining, sometimes they interact in ways that are zero-sum; if I gain you lose or otherwise it is negative-sum in which both sides lose. The realists model that Jef outlines seems to advocate or assume that all cooperation because they are relative ains, are zero-sum; if I gain you lose but according to liberal thinking there are situations when it is a win-win situation (Bromley CD 2010) The Liberal model also argues that there are many situations where mutual dependence does not imply vulnerability vis-a-vis security or even worry about their relative position vis-a-vis other states and an example could be that as a country, we can come to define our national interest in terms, not of how we are progressing vis-a-vis another country but how we are coping vis-a-vis last year, focused only on our growth rate. The core claim of liberal model is that once you recognise the strategic nature of interdependence and once you recognise that the national interest is socially shaped by society and not just deriving from your position in the state system, then the possibilities of cooperation are far much greater. Concluding remarks draws three general conclusions, the game is positive-sum if states are geared solely with their absolute gains, there is chance for co-operative bargaining to mutual advantage. Anarchy is no danger to cooperation in this world. Secondly, if states evaluate their positions purely in relation to others, then all games even positive-sum ones are turned to zero-sum ones where neither will be prepared to move away from the original thereby blocking cooperation as was seen between the superpowers during the Cold War. Thirdly, when states care about their absolute gains and their relative positions, the outcome is indeterminate and depends on how they weigh the one against the other. If relative considerations do not weigh too heavily in their calculations, states may still find themselves in a positive-sum game.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s use of binary oppositions is the key comedic element in the Importance of Being Earnest. To what extent do you agree with this view? Throughout the play, Oscar Wilde portrays several binary opposites using the characters and themes of the play, such as the town and country, class, age, gender and morals. However I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that the binary opposites are the main source of comedy in the play. The reason I find it comical is from the fact that the play is a comedy of manners as well as WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s satirising of the Victorian morals. WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s depiction of Victorian caricatures also creates amusement for the audience. In the play, trivial things are regarded so seriously and the serious things in life are treated with sincere and studiedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The lower classes in Earnest are less pretentious and more humble in comparison to the upper class. A major contrast in class is shown through Gwendolen and Cecily when they sit down for tea. After some heated words, they believe the other is trying to steal their love and they show some hostility towards each other. This exchange takes place in Act II. (308-314) Ã¢â¬Å"Cecily: May I offer you some tea, Miss Fairfax? Gwendolen: (With elaborate politeness) Thank you. (Aside) Detestable girl! But I require tea! Cecily: (Sweetly) Sugar? Gwendolen: (Superciliously) No, thank you. Sugar is not fashionable any more. (Cecily looks angrily at her, takes up the tongs and puts four lumps of sugar into the cup.) Cecily: (Severely) Cake or bread and butter? Gwendolen: (In a bored manner) Bread and butter, please. Cake is rarely seen at the best houses nowadays. Cecily: (Cuts a very large slice of cake, and puts it on the tray.) Hand that to Miss Fairfax.Ã¢â¬ Cecily takes advantage of GwendolenÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with fashion and appearance to others. To Gwendolen, these choices are important statements on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s stylishness and reputation amongst peers and to people in society. Here, Cecily takes advantage of her lower birth to insult Gwendolen. Gwendolen is of a high social class and a luxurious upbringing compared to Cecily who lives in the country with Jack as her guardian and under the care of Miss Prism. When